Over the last years, unemployment rates have continued to diverge across European countries reflecting the level of economic activity and different impact of the economic crisis.
By early 2012, the unemployment rate in Spain reached 23 per cent - the highest in Europe. Although Greece has experienced a sharper increase in unemployment due to the economic and financial constraints in the country, the unemployment rate was smaller than in Spain - about 20 per cent by the end of 2011.
Germany and Poland - two large Central European economies - have experienced stable unemployment rates: 10 per cent in Poland and a graduate fall from 8 to 6 per cent in Germany. Norway is an example of an economy that has not been influenced much by the crisis. Unemployment there has stayed at 3-4 per cent over the two years.
Source: UNECE Statistical database www.unece.org/stats/data
In most UNECE countries, the economic activity rate of working-age women is constantly growing. In Ireland, for example, this indicator increased from 46.1 per cent in 1995 to 62.5 per cent 2009. For the same period, the Netherlands experienced the growth in this field from 57.9 per cent to 73.3 per cent.
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The importance of import for the domestic demand has developed differently in the countries of East Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia (EECCA) over the last five years. It remained stable in Armenia, Georgia, Russia and Ukraine, while in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Moldova and Tajikistan, the importance of import for domestic demand dropped.
Kyrgyzstan was the only country that experienced an increase in import compared to domestic demand over the last five years.
Import of goods and services plays an important role for the economies of EECCA countries. The importance can be measured by the ratio of import to domestic final demand (final consumption expenditure plus gross capital formation). This indicator shows the share of domestic final demand met by import.
For the first group of countries, the shares of import and domestic final demand to GDP showed similar growth over the five-year period. This resulted in a stable ratio of import to domestic final demand.
The second group of countries all experienced growth in domestic final demand in share of GDP and decrease in import’s share of GDP. This led to a decrease in the ratio of import to domestic final demand. The data reflects a growing importance of the domestic production for these countries. For Kyrgyzstan, on the other hand, the role of domestic production for the economy fell in this period.
UNECE Statistical Database now contains indicators that give a snapshot of economic globalization in the countries of the region. The indicators are available for every year dating back to 1990.
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The UNECE Statistical Database has been significantly enhanced in content and functionality in recent months – resulting in positive feedback from users.
The database contains data from three UNECE Divisions, covering a growing range of topics including economic, social, transport and forestry statistics. The most recent additions are data on progress towards the Millennium Development Goals and on international migration.
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Countries across Eastern and South-eastern Europe, Caucasus and Central Asia still show large variation in employment-to-population ratio (the employed proportion of a country’s population 15 years and older ). No clear trend emerged during the last decade. The changes are small with the exception of the Republic of Moldova.
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The 2006 High-level Dialogue on International Migration and Development at the United Nations General Assembly concluded that international migration could play an important role in national development, provided that it was supported by the right set of strategies and policies. This has led to the increase in international efforts related to migration and its measurement.
Responding to the demand for evidence-based policies, our new report provides a review of sources and quality of statistics on international migration in selected countries of the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS): Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, the Russian Federation and Tajikistan.
The report was prepared under the responsibility of the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe in the framework the project “Strengthening national capacities to deal with international migration: maximizing development benefits and minimizing negative impacts”. The project involved all five regional commissions of the United Nations and was financed from the
United Nations Development Account.
The report gives a general overview of the existing or potentially available systems of migration data collection and of data quality assessment where data are available. It builds on the review of the systems of migration data collection and production in CIS countries, which the United Nations Economic Commission in Europe (UNECE) conducted in 2007. We expect that the information presented herein improve understanding of migration and migration statistics in CIS countries.